August 2016 has come and gone, in a blur of shows, events, work, friends and good times. Here’s the detritus of three and a half weeks of stuff, with a list of what stuff it was. I managed to catch 25 shows/events during the month, which averaged at one a day. Can’t complain about that really. Some great variety too…
Music: Kathryn Joseph was excellent, right at the start. Usher Hall performances included Barry Humphries’ Weimar Cabaret and Wagner’s Das Rheingold. Both excellent. Deep Time kicked off the International Festival and was really well done – I had an unexpectedly excellent view.
Comedy: I really liked Robert Newman, just because. Mark Thomas’s show was on the last day of my festival and it was truly wonderful.
Theatre: Richard III stood out – it was refreshing, dark, funny, debauched and audacious. Tim Crouch’s piece was really well done and shocking at times.
Books: Through a work link I saw quite a few EIBF events. Lemn Sissay was exceptional and we are privileged to have his insights into our world. Jim Haynes likewise, and it was good to wallow a little in the history of the festivals.
That’ll do for now I reckon. More next year, please.
There’s a growing momentum around the idea of ‘critical event studies’, which has led to the publication of this edited book (including a chapter from me!). Themes include research methods, history, ideologies and encounters.
My chapter is titled ‘The Strength of Festival Ties: Social Network Analysis and the 2014 Edinburgh International Science Festival’. It takes a broadly research methods focus, applying whole network analysis to the employees of the EISF on the eve of the 2014 festival. There are plans and hopes that this ‘critical’ agenda can lead to panels at conferences, further publications, and more symposia and gatherings.
Last Friday (9 September, 2016) saw the first Critical Event Studies Symposium, held at Mad Lab, Manchester. What follows are my bullet point notes from the day. Further material from the day is being posted to the main site, and the Twitter hashtag is #CritEvents. The format of the day encouraged discussion and conversation, critique and questioning. And some excellent note taking!
Critical Event Studies Symposium
Friday 9 September, Mad Lab, Manchester
Maurice Roche: background in mega events, particularly sporting and world’s fairs.
- Outlines growth in events work, including HE.
- Critical Event Studies: a response to burgeoning interest in events, and their meaning. Going beyond practise, operation and economic dimensions of events.
- Events need to be understood in terms of conflict and contest: should be aware of this when we look at events, going beyond mainstream interpretations.
- Contexts are vital: political and cultural, in addition to economic.
- So what’s new? Roche sees this as a re-animation and re-discovery of existing themes. (See Roche: ‘Mega-Events & Modernity’.) Example of 1936 Nazi Olympics: what was happening in Germany, what was the IOC doing at the time? But a need to justify and explain this to other academic fields.
- Roche in Sheffield: strange time in the city as economy crashes (steel, coal), while also planning for 1991 World Student Games. What was driving it, what was the legacy? Result being 25 years of debt, thus opportunity costs as a negative legacy. Therefore… conflict and contest.
- Recognition of the complexity of events; the rise of the global east; contexts are changing; changing contexts influences changes in events; what of ‘the future’ and where are we going; Roche predicts a strong future for events, coming out of the recent growth.
- Threats to events: see issues relating to FIFA, IAAF, IOC and other global institutions. Existential threat?
- Notes value and good timing for this focus on ‘critical events’.
- This is the right time, following 30 years of theorising around events. Time to bring this together with the managerial angle, to build bridges and look at common terms, and themes can be looked at afresh.
- Anthropological angle: myth and ritual and their place in events. Contemporary myth making. City branding on one level, but also how we see ourselves and how are we presenting this to ourselves and to the world. How do you tell the story? How do we judge whether an event is a success or a failure?
- Notes Brazil: a sense of pride around opening ceremony, perhaps unexpectedly, a sense that the Olympics weren’t going to be a failure after all.
- Events and festivals: differences between them. Events as to be experienced, mediated, global, building a new reality for the Olympics since the 1980s. The Olympics sells access, sells exclusivity, sells sponsorship opportunities… but this brings pressure from the needs of the media, so that the real experience is the televised one, rather than the live experience. Limited resources need to be spent where the greatest pay off can be found. Festivals are more about the lived experience, hopefully paying attention to the needs of the local audience. How to recover the festival from within the event city?
- Garcia: personally inspired by 1992 Barcelona Olympics, where the city was overtly integrated into the narrative, ‘the city as a protagonist’. However, always a struggle to get the city into the picture. Saw 9/11 as a spur to retreat back into arenas, where they can be controlled. Since then security is a key priority.
- ECOC: different from sporting mega events on the basis of scale, length, motivations, focus. See cultural events as being a harder context in which to justify position. Are they really a mega event? Do they get the media coverage that help to define sporting mega events? Is it possible to link the ‘business’ angle of cultural events (which is vital) with broader objectives relating to society and culture?
- Notes that Olympics are broadening their scope, to take on board cultural elements. See ‘national houses’ dimension, presenting a mini World Expo.
- New: the way we deal with the public realm, in that cities can’t really be shut off, so how to deal with protest and debate? Particularly in the context of social media. How to create a festival around a mega event in this context?
- New: a discussion around how to tell the story. Does the 1980s vision of exclusive media access, the experts on screen, etc. still hold true? Where is the multiplicity of voices that is expected today? What place experts today? Stories are being told simultaneously through multiple media, that no one can control.
- Challenge: making use of the expertise available. The ‘caravan of experts’ that exists around each mega event, who will provide a festival model for you (at a cost): importing ideas into your city, because they worked elsewhere. How is this providing an answer for the needs of your city? They can’t, without creating ‘non-places’, where anything that doesn’t fit the model gets covered up and ignored. How to make the most of knowledge transfer, while responding to what’s difficult and challenging and specific to each destination?
- Agrees that we need to value place making, and how do you combine the necessity to learn and provide legacy, with the need for wonderment, and for each host to question the situation it finds itself in.
James McVeigh: Festivals Edinburgh
- Edinburgh Festivals context: 1947 to 2017. Festivals rooted in the destination, with both historical and contemporary links to the festivals. Lends ‘authenticity’ to the festivals.
- Impact assessment report (2016).
- 2007 ‘Publicly-funded culture and the creative industries’ text started debate over the role of the public funding and later commercial successes.
- Fault line between ‘important work’ and ‘popular work’. Led to ‘Desire Lines’, to pick out the influence between the festivals and the year round cultural provision.
- Resident versus tourist: who are the festivals for?
- Social impacts: who are the festivals for? Scope: festivals are more than fireworks… they last longer that just the moment of experience. Where is the voice of the resident? How to find the voice of different communities? How to bring audiences and communities into the conversation?
- Festivals in the broader cultural economy: how to establish the link between festivals and broader cultural work, when this is poorly understood? Note that Edinburgh festivals are seen as a place to see new work, and recognised as such by the artists themselves.
- Festivals’ role in audience development: why do people do things differently at festival time? See new work, engage differently.
- Festivals Innovation Lab: how can festivals adapt and change, act as a laboratory of new thinking. Festivals should be at the vanguard of cultural thinking.
- Societal importance of festivals: from Holi to Tomatina, Day of the Dead, etc. Festivals interrupt the day to day. They introduce work into new spaces. They can help you reimagine your city.
- 1947: context of post-war austerity and European conflict, yet Edinburgh held a party, for the ‘flowering of the human spirit’.
Ellie Turner: Walk the Plank
- Critical events: community participation and relevance. Giving people and communities a sense of place, and pride. Working at all scales, on land, sea and air. Telling a story through their work, their artists, makers, musicians, etc. Bringing international artists together with local artists, to build the capacity of NW to deliver such projects. ‘Impact’ is delivered from the start.
- Key to connect with the community that you’re working with.
- Have we been held back by a focus on mega events?
- The biddable nature of sporting events means that they get a lot of attention, have to be able to justify themselves and get support. How do we define mega events: does it include ECOC? In Edinburgh festivals are seen as a concentration of space, time and activity… so a year long festival doesn’t make sense, it’s a branding exercise.
- The distinction between attracting events and supporting those you already have and are created yourself. Where should funding come from: different pots of money for these different types of events?
- Distinction between local and global: how to reflect both. How to retain knowledge, experience and expertise within the destination.
- James notes timing of festivals’ founding, often in a time of change and/or crisis: post-WWII, 1968, post-Berlin Wall.
- Where’s the critical? Are we being constrained by orthodoxies and how do we overcome them? How do we think radically?
- BG: bring new people to the table.
- JMcV: Edinburgh’s engagement with tech sector, viewing the festivals as a laboratory.
- Should events and festivals have a limited life time? That they exist to fulfil a particular need, but that they should be allowed to die once that need has passed.
- KW: notes opposition to Paralympics and whether this ‘circus’ is meeting the needs of its various communities.
- Institute of Event Management and professional recognition:
- How will outputs be disseminated from today? LP highlights today as a starting point, but that outputs will be disseminated centrally and by different participants.
- What of local/global and other dichotomies:
- Looking to roots of festivals: to what extent are there common factors in different places?
- What happens when you take an event from one context to another, with a different cultural context?
- How to address the complexities of societies and cultures and destinations: disconnected communities, etc.?
- How to reflect the diversity of a community or destination? How to avoid the standard white, middle class audience? The diversity of a city can be its strength, but is this reflected in the producers, consumers, participants and audiences of a festival?
- How ‘local’ are local festivals, which are produced by external organisations? E.g. Walk the Plank getting a contract to deliver events in your city.
- Distinctions between festivals and events and processions:
- JMcV: points to FE criteria for being a member, which includes lasting for at least three days.
- Cultural context important, because what works for one location might not be applicable elsewhere.
- Different conceptualisations of ‘public space’, and how some places seem to ‘discover’ phenomena that are common elsewhere.
Questioning the role of ‘experts’
- What is an expert?
- Where is the expertise: local authorities?
- What are graduates coming out of university equipped to do?
- It sounds as though we need experts within the events industry, to avoid problems and potential catastrophes.
- Research as an element of developing expertise.
- How can Event Management courses be developed to meet the needs of industry: bringing the academic and/or the practical knowledge? How to address the variety of types of events, facets of the industry and so on?
- Industry experience: situations where industry has to rescue event plans that go off track.
- Experts having a clearer idea of realistic scale and scope for festivals and events, based on available budgets.
- What of having experts from one city delivering events elsewhere: a means to the end of sustainability for the company? How to avoid the risk of damaging the original brand?
- Expertise: tied to credibility? Each source being judged on its authority and justification. So, in the events context who carries that authority and validation?
- Does the expert have to have the qualifications? What place experience? Perhaps the expert is the one to say ‘stop’.
- Development of the events management education: skewed towards the operational, instrumental and evangelical? What have we done to this generation of graduates? Highlight the value of work placements and experience to build on the academic.
- Different models of placements and internships within degree courses: concentrated, spread out, etc. A need to develop work based learning that suits the student and the employer – trying to avoid negative experiences that will put partners off in the future.
Is event management superficial and self-congratulatory?
- Following on from Rojek’s critique of events (‘Event Power’).
- DMcG: following up on this by identifying the critical work that has been done around events.
- How does critical event studies avoid superficiality?
- A sense that event practitioners are also blinkered in their approach to the industry… and yet look at Walk to Plank’s recognition that they are contributing to sense of place and pride.
- How to take a critical approach, that draws on a range of ideas (authenticity, commercialisation, etc.), to deliver events that reflect those ideas. Easy to overlook these things in the need to be successful and sustainable.
- Funding regimes: a need to satisfy funding requirements in order to get support.
- How to educate students so that they can deliver events that are successful, can get funding, and can draw from the need to meet a range of objectives.
- Rojek’s argument carries weight (though there are criticisms of how he delivers his argument).
- Events education: moving away from hospitality and tourism. And yet… how does what we do match up with what employers are looking for. (Some might prefer the previous model!)
- Legal matters: how to integrate legal content into an events management course? A dedicated module that covers ‘what you need to know’? Events students need to be aware of the broader legal context in which you operate, which includes some of the reasons why people might be protesting against your event.
- Events struggling to have an epistemology and philosophy that defines it as being different. Without it, there will be questions over credibility, coming from other academic areas.
- How are these courses then judged: on their level of academic criticality? NSS ‘intellectual challenge’?
- The foundations of a programme might be crucial in its development: growing out of hospitality and tourism, or appearing independently of them?
- Events literature: how to reflect and support the more critical work? See how Tourism has diversified, yet Events is still primarily publishing management/operational work in such journals? Critical work is being done, but it’s often published in non-events journals.
- A possible parting of the waves? Management courses, and studies courses?
- Do we see many students taking events courses purely for the academic side? Not really… the better academic students may well be generally switched on in all areas, or others are less keen to get involved in the volunteering side of things.
Events and festivals as liminal, radical spaces
- Not quite every day life, but there are still rules.
- Phases of ritual: liminal is central, the phase where someone goes from one state to another and is open to new ideas. A transformative phase.
- What happens when the person goes back into the normal world?
- A space of potential: other things are possible.
- Venice Carnival: the wearing of masks to deliver equality, or at least anonymity.
- Festivals that turn things on their heads: performances in different spaces; juxtaposing audiences and performers; altering the geography and flow of a place.
- Transformative: do we see people being changed?
- Ritual, carnival and liminality: Bakhtin, etc. …the potential for people to come back from a festival experience a different person. Does this work only at the individual level, but not for broader social change? Yet the individuals are what makes up society, and they have agency.
- Thresholds: what does it take for an individual to let themselves go?
- Examples: Traverse Theatre in Edinburgh; LIFT in London. Starting projects in order to produce and provide spaces in which new ideas can be discussed, phenomena created.
- Does liminality apply in a sports context? Crossing a touchline into a space where different rules apply? Yet liminality suggests there are no rules.
Last Thursday, 26 May 2016, I headed up from Edinburgh to Dundee to Mass Assembly 2016. It was an early start, but the wonderful Scottish climate offers about 20 hours of daylight at the moment. That’s plenty enough to check on the new Forth crossing: looking good just now.
The whole event was devised and built around collaborations, networks, hubs and partnerships in the creative and cultural sector. I went along because of my interests in networks, as well as general support for Creative Edinburgh (one of the delivery partners). They worked alongside Creative Dundee to bring it all together. In the audience were those representing lots of other networks and organisations. A network of networks, a hub of hubs. All very meta.
The following notes lack much narrative. Rather than try to piece together the whole day, I have opted to copy and paste my bullet point notes. For further coverage of the day, please see the Storify constructed by Creative Dundee.
26 May 2016, Dundee
Opening: Gillian E and Janine M
- Setting out basis for the day, ref to ‘creative cities’ project that linked cities across Scotland.
- Thanks to British Council and their support.
- Notes boundaries that prevent people working together, including visas (in today’s case).
Canan Marasligil: Translation as a bridge
- Discusses language (her personal journey) and translation.
- Translation relying on networks, and translation can help build communities.
- Project 1: #cityintranslation
- Project 2: Spectacular Translation Machine. An activity based environment in which people translate materials (pictures) into their own words.
- Highlights importance of networks for freelancers.
Josyane Franc: Creating the opportunities to engage the wider population (Saint-Etienne)
- Links between Dundee and Saint-Etienne: both the first UNESCO City of Design in their countries.
- Key stakeholders in network:
- Buildings: concert hall, administrative institutions
- S-E School of Art and Design
- Cite du Design 2009: festival held in former arms factory, in the heart of the city
- Process: took time to engage local people and administration
- Local government: established ‘Design Manager’ position, to introduce design into planning of each new development in the city
- La Manufacture: a creative district for the city, bringing designers, researchers, fab lab, companies, etc. – emphasis is on collaboration, within a focused built environment
- Large scale project: involving residential, leisure and business environments
- Future: national theatre due to open a space soon
- Deliberate effort to publicise the network and the work it is doing
- Important role of S-E biennale, which engaged local communities and other cities (international)
- ’S-E changes design, and changes the idea of design’
Discussion: led by Clive Gillman
- To create a community and a hub we need to think about: language, space, place, interactions…
- Q: How do we describe a place?
- A: The people. The people describe that place.
- A: Ambassadors, at different levels, who play a part in the development of the city. From local politicians/authorities to activists.
- Discussion led to urban/rural debate, including limits to what can be achieved in rural environments.
- Digital: what can digital tools provide?
- Real estate prices in urban centres can be astronomic, but still desired, yet workers are often remotely connected.
- Libraries: what place libraries as a platform for social capital, knowledge, engagement, meetings, all parts of community brought together: making people feel comfortable in a space.
Steven Drost: Start ups and creatives – some thoughts / The live audit
- The role of start ups, and start up culture, in the creative sector.
- Start up culture is generally optimistic, but needs to be tempered by talking to communities and the people who will actually engage with them.
- Lessons from start ups: iterate and improve; build a business around your ideas; work with pirates (not the navy).
Steve Hamm: The future belongs to crowds
- Steve works for Swarm.
- A trend towards a more crowd based approach.
- Technology is taking us in this direction, allowing us to connect.
- Economics too: the ‘firm’ operates to reduce transaction costs.
- What of the connected world, where transaction costs are reducing, allowing for collaboration without the need for a firm.
- Collaboration: necessary to collaborate with a diverse mix of characters.
- The importance of meeting face to face.
- Recording: important to track and capture the process and outcomes of a collaboration. Helps to produce something that can be shared.
- Makes reference to SNA research into Broadway musicals: what’s the right balance between all new teams and those who are tired and stale with no means of introducing new ideas.
- Uber: highlighted as a service that supports one group of users very well, but neglects others (e.g. the drivers). A need to develop a broader approach, of ‘user-centred’ or ‘community-centred’ design.
- From ‘August’ consultancy (New York).
- ‘Responsive working’: encouraging companies to help businesses prepare for a new way of working. Large, old companies aren’t able to compete with newer ones, where they’ve been hamstrung by hierarchies and bureaucracies.
- How to work with companies and individuals that don’t always see the need for change?
- Key principles: open, learning, networked, iteration.
Discussion: led again by Clive Gillman
- On ‘exploitation of intellectual property’: written into law that Creative Scotland works to support those who work with intellectual property. Yet also seen that many in the creative industries actually work with traditional means of activity: producing goods, etc.
- A need for those who are being affected by collaborative work to be part of the process.
- Super connectors: important in the development of communities, and can be found formally or informally; but can be important to look beyond these people in order to develop a broader understanding of the ways people might react to a particular project.
- Embedding of artists and creatives within other sectors of the economy: what benefits can this bring?
- Notes the importance of businesses working with creatives in order to reach creative solutions to problems: new ways of thinking can achieve breakthroughs, but it takes for the business to be open to new ideas and believing that they don’t have the solutions themselves.
- Designers bring skills and superpowers to the table. Get yourself through the door!
- Janine: notes use of ‘hot desk hangouts’ to get creative folk into organisations for a day, helping to show that creatives can have a place to work in that environment.
- Nice section where different people stood up to talk about their projects and networks.
Tomorrow morning, 20 August, I’ll be with twenty students from Hong Kong University SPACE for three hours. They have been in Edinburgh and Scotland over the past couple of weeks, and our task tomorrow is to discuss their experiences, particularly in relation to the Festival Fringe. Rather that producing a few dozen slides to keep us ‘entertained’, I’ll be armed with marker pens, boundless enthusiasm and some useful links. Where better to host those links than on this here blog, which I’m also going to put up on the screen during the session… hello HKU!
All suggestions gratefully received! The focus will be on practical and operational considerations, with some historical context to help show how and why things developed the way they have. We’ll go through a year in the life of the Fringe and some of its key stakeholders.
There’ll also be time for some group discussion, around questions like…
- Which have been your favourite festival shows and venues? What did you like about them and what made them special?
- Which shows had the best marketing and why did they stand out to you?
- What makes Edinburgh a ‘festival city’?
- What will you take back to Hong Kong: what have you seen happening in Edinburgh that could be done in Hong Kong? What would be the challenges in making it work?
Photo credit (CC): ‘Centre Of The Action’ / flickr.com/photos/dfluff/3889328855/
Let’s not use the word ‘resolution’ for my plans for 2014, but a review of what I hoped to achieve returns a mixed scorecard. It won’t take long to run through a bullet point or two…
- My WordPress review of 2014 tells me I posted 25 times to this blog. Once a fortnight doesn’t sound too much, but of course the distribution wasn’t even. There were months with nothing, then a spurt in the middle of the year. I’m glad I put together the ‘10 weeks of summer‘ series, which got me writing again just at a time when there was plenty to say. The intention was to get in to the habit of posting more frequently, on a wider range of topics and perhaps through shorter posts. It’s not really happened that way, but the blog lives on and hope springs eternal.
- Twitter has been good fun, as usual. 1,390 followers… who they all are I’ve little idea! As the years go by I make more connections with students past and present, which helps keep me in check with the words and pictures I post there!
- Edinburgh Napier / Edinburgh International Book Festival: I helped lead a project through work where we covered a wide range of Book Festival events, all linked to World War I. The blog is here, with stuff from me, Napier colleagues and students.
- Podcasts: on the subject of Edinburgh Napier, I’ve posted many podcasts for my students using Audioboo, which renamed itself Audioboom at some point. What’s more I now have a microphone and have started to investigate and use Garageband to record them. The files go up, I embed them in my online teaching spaces and that’s that.
- Blipfoto: I had a plan to post a photo a day between 17:07 and 20:14. The inspiration for this? They be the dates between the Acts of Union between Scotland and England, and the independence referendum. I couldn’t keep it going, so the Blipfoto project fell by the wayside. It was good while on trips though, so I filled in some days while in New Zealand. Maybe that’s the best way to use that platform, as the basis of smaller projects, with the images then embedded on the blog.
- Trips and travel:
- Two trips to Hong Kong, with work. This was teaching based, with the second one unlike anything I’ll ever see again because of the protest camps. I’ve written some of that up here.
- The first Hong Kong trip fell just before the Easter teaching break, so it seemed reasonable to take the next fortnight off to see friends in New Zealand. It all went very well indeed.
- Berlin, Riga and the Positivus Festival in northern Latvia: this was a great trip, I loved all these places and would happily do the whole thing over again in 2015.
- The Netherlands is becoming an annual excursion, where I head to NHTV Breda University and carry out some external examining. It’s a lovely town, they’re all lovely people and it would be a happy privilege to carry on with this in 2015.
- Walking: there are two plans on the go, both of which could easily have been completed in 2014, but weren’t even attempted. A ‘missing’ day’s walk on the West Highland Way needs to be filled in, then I’ve ambitions to walk from Leith to Milngavie. These things can be rolled forward.
- Airbnb: I used Airbnb in three capital cities – Wellington, Berlin and Riga. They were all good experiences, so will be doing this again. I haven’t yet organised to have anyone to stay at mine, but it seems silly not to give it a go before 2015 is over and done with.
- Arthur’s Seat: I had a plan (again) to climb it once a month, every month. I achieved three out of 12 it seems. JFxxMxxxxxxx
- Running: I wanted to get 52 half hour runs under my belt through the year, but managed ten it seems. That’s terrible.
- Novels: I wanted to read two novels, but managed only about 100 pages of one of them. (Nick Cave’s ‘The Death of Bunny Munro’.) Again, a terrible performance.
- Hamonica: having been gifted a blues harp for my 35th birthday (2013) I figured I should learn a new trick or two on it. Not really managed that either.
- The RSA: I’m still an FRSA, still sitting on the RSA Scotland Team, still enjoying it.
So what went wrong? Did I waste my time? Probably, but hopefully it’ll be a while before I run out of the stuff and I can go again in 2015.
- Blogging: more blog posts, more ‘journalling’ using Day One and more experimentation with other media that can be integrated with these platforms and Twitter.
- Trips: more of this please! More Europe. Airbnb again, plus a bit of hosting to fund it.
- Walking: I’ll get that bit done up north and I’ll make it along the canal to Glasgow.
- Arthur’s Seat: yes, let’s achieve it this time.
- Running: I’ll aim for 26 runs, trying out some fitness apps on the phone (maybe).
- Novels: fine, I’ll try for the same target.
- Harmonica: maybe I should plan to play a gig on 31 December 2015…
This Storify captures my tweets from a week spent in Hong Kong.
Word reached Edinburgh this week that a paper I’ve been working on with three Edinburgh Napier colleagues has now been published. This news is very welcome to us, and you can find further details here:
Social network analysis and festival cities: an exploration of concepts, literature and methods: International Journal of Event and Festival Management: Vol 5, No 3
The work started life as part of the literature review for my PhD. The early (and unfinished) resolution of the PhD work opened up the opportunity to make alternative use of the material. I was very fortunate to have three supervisors who were keen to continue working on these themes and we are all very happy to see the paper in print and pixels.
One of those authors, Prof Hazel Hall, has also blogged about the publication. As she says: ‘We conclude that although the importance of relationships sustained within networks has long been recognised within the industry, and that festival cities offer dynamic environments in which to investigate the workings of social networks, there is scant reflection of this in the event studies literature. A research method is proposed as suitable for application across a diverse range of festivals and events.’
I hope to continue working on that proposed research method, with more news to come as progress is made.
The full citation is:
Jarman, D., Theodoraki, E., Hall, H., Ali-Knight, J. (2014). Social network analysis and festival cities: an exploration of concepts, literature and methods. International Journal of Event and Festival Management 5(3), 311-322.