- The main festival/conference site: http://futureeverything.org
- Details on all the conference speakers: http://futureeverything.org/speakers
- FutureEverything???s own review of day one: http://futureeverything.org/news/the-latest-from-futr-day-one
- See also the FutureEverybody report: here
- A write up from The Guardian is: here
- There’s a need to identify ‘objects’ within social media in order to begin the process of analysing it: links, users, tags, relationships between users, etc.
- It can be very hard to get at stable data: by its nature social media is constantly changing, being added to, deleted, archived away, taken down, etc. This makes it hard to code as well – where do you start, how do you cope with such diversity of material?
- For Farida the key came through speaking to a colleague who had computering coding skills and could provide access to relevant APIs: suddenly lots of data was available. Depending on the site in question, researchers could now get behind the front page and gather user demographics, etc. As a result specific software has been published…
- During work on the ‘Fitna’ video, focusing on YouTube research, some network analysis was also used: who commented on whose videos; who’s subscribed to whom; who is friends with whom?
- From an ethical perspective, the relevant ethics panel may well approve such work because it’s anonymised and the data is already in the public domain (comments, tweets, etc.); yet researchers may prefer to class this as ‘semi-public’, because some of what’s being accessed is somewhat behind the scenes.
- Data visualisations: to be taken with a pinch of salt. What does the big data graphic hide that only comes through in the little data?
- Sometimes there are limitations to what the web will provide: only 1,000 videos are available for each YouTube query, so some creative work with filters is sometimes needed to get to expand what’s available.
- Performing a relatively straightforward search on a social media site will often bring up unexpected results: alternative perspectives, non-mainstream stories, people using tags simply to attract traffic to unrelated work and so on.
- The research that followed demonstrated that Twitter is a key platform for breaking news, making information available quickly and often well ahead of mainstream media.
- There was of course the accusation that Twitter and social media in general was to blame for the riots, with ensuing demands that it be shut down.
- Other actors, such as the police in certain areas, protested that they were using social media as a means of communicating with the public.
- The Guardian and Twitter essentially curated the data, so its capture wasn’t controlled, planned or managed by the researchers themselves.
- There is therefore a need to recognise that the paper has an editorial line, and that Twitter also has an agenda – they are not in the habit of making this amount of data available.
- Key research questions: which tweets fit together; which are the parent tweets and the children that follow; what was the role of ‘rumour’ in the online conversation?
- Evidence coding: each tweet was coded by human hand three times – this took time.
- The results include being able to visualise how rumours start, are debunked, go quiet and may then re-emerge. What makes a particular account get noticed, who is trusted?
- Other results flag up a small set of ‘elite’ users, followed by a very, very long tail.
A few days ago I wrote about some of the differences between working in academia and my previous gainful employment with the Edinburgh Festival Fringe – I’ll continue the reflective theme to kick off this post.
Given my position at Edinburgh Napier a couple of years ago (relatively new to teaching but generally settled as a lecturer and programme leader) I was beginning to catch on that what universities hanker for is a solid research portfolio. In order to fit in with this I was going to have to build up that aspect of my contribution to the institution, regardless of the number of modules I might teach (home and abroad) or the volume of students on one of my programmes (up to 300-350 in recent years). The PhD is therefore a way for me to structure my research efforts, a focus for the sort of topics and themes I’m interested in and ultimately I hope to ‘get something out of it myself’.
The opening to this year’s Business School Research Conference provided some context for this as we heard from the university’s new Vice Principal Academic and the Dean of the faculty. Between them they talked up the importance of research, with its links to the reputation, teaching, income and identity of the institution – this element of our work is therefore intrinsic to our status as a university. I wouldn’t argue against that, particularly as we then heard from Prof Alan Fyall of Bournemouth University, discussing the roles they play within the local economy. The benefits of having a clear contribution to make to the interests of partners and stakeholders were clear, facilitating access to key people and resources, lending authenticity and value to shared projects, and helping to contextualise local efforts in the bigger picture. Alan’s talk captured some of the goals I work towards in my teaching, demonstrating that contemporary forces and structures affect the decisions of those in industry, universities and other partners: it’s vital that students and staff recognise and can interpret the environment they’re operating within. In Bournemouth, England, this means contributing to ‘Local Enterprise Partnerships’ among other things; in Edinburgh, Scotland, it will increasingly mean following the independence debates and what this will mean for the city’s access to public resources, entrepreneurial opportunities and renewed connections to the rest of the UK and the wider world.
The conference continued with a wider range of excellent student presentations, demonstrating the wealth of talent and energy within the faculty. There was a fairly consistent theme of ‘community’ across some of the work: events and collective memory; virtual communities and customer relationship management; the ability of sporting mega events to cure the ills of host communities; and my own ideas around festivals, communities of interest and social media. The speakers developed their ideas by questioning whether those in positions of relative power understood the needs of those they are working with, with implications for the level of buy-in from that community. Likewise is the community in question brought into the discussion at an early enough stage: the benefits of co-creation can easily be undermined or compromised if the ‘co’ element is too much of an afterthought, or if views are not listened to. These presentations also brought home to me the relative lack of reading that I’ve done, no matter how much talking, discussing and thinking might have taken place! It was interesting to hear from a DBA student looking into social media and CRM that there is far more industry literature available in this area than there is academic. From my own work I would agree that there is still a relative dirth of material on social media, which to bring this post full circle suggests that an academic researcher must keep in touch with the industry to which her or his work is partially addressed.
The first day of the conference rounded off with some wine, nibbles and broken legs in the Chapel, as you do. Spread over an hour or so we were treated to four ‘20×20’ presentations, which variously looked at the life of a graduate teaching assistant, research while incapacitated (the broken leg), my research ideas and a grand tour through a range of research vegetables (you’ve heard of the research onion, now meet the carrot and the tomato). This idea started as something that the organising committee let me run with, but with others on board it seemed to work and I hope its gets repeated.
There come points in every PhD when the intrepid researcher has to account for what they’ve been doing. Fair enough I say, we can’t spend our time reading and pondering and reading some more in isolation – that would just reinforce the stereotype… wouldn’t you say? So it is that my institution provided a couple of opportunities for me to do so last week: I’ll post something about our faculty research conference soon, what follows is about my ‘RD4′, where we sit down and try to work out whether my research ideas have some merit. It’s May 2012, so I’ve had eight months to reach this stage (though I can’t help thinking I’ve only managed about ten weeks’ productive PhD work in that time).
At the heart of the proposal is the main research aim, which at the moment looks like this:
‘To use social network analysis to examine communities of interest around cultural festivals, evaluating online and offline connections and their influence on social capital and power in these community networks.’
What do you think? Too vague, broad, ambitious, outdated and missing the point? Will it be relevant in five years time? Where should it be positioned in the theoretical literature?
It needs focus, to be tightened up and made more manageable. The ‘and offline’ could be dropped, bringing the focus firmly onto the online. Perhaps ‘social network analysis’ and ‘social capital and power’ aren’t necessary either, but they point to both methodology and theory: which methods am I interested in using and which areas of cultural festival communities do I think are impacted/augmented by these online connections (social media and so on)? The question then becomes are they the right approaches and concepts to be thinking about?
- Social network analysis: I think this is appropriate and should stay. I like what I’ve read about social networks and I think it fits as a proposed methodology with its own theoretical literature.
- Social capital: again this is something I’m interested in and there’s a growing literature linking these ideas to festivals and events. I think it deserves to feature in the main aim in order to keep it front and centre throughout the research.
- Power: I’m less sure about this one, although perhaps it’s impossible to consider social networks without some reference to (im)balances of power. I’m also proposing a critical realist research philosophy, which has an emancipatory motivation. Consideration of power could facilitate this, recognising that not everyone in a community network has equal influence.
The aim could therefore be seen to follow this construction:
- Methodology: social network analysis
- Focus: communities of interest
- Context: cultural festivals
- Data: online connections
- Theory: social capital, power
These themes have all featured in the work I’ve done to this point, from the original proposal to the scoping literature review and deliberations on how best to proceed with a systematic review of the literature. That all suggests consistency, but via an ongoing and iterative process involving a range of people.
To go with the aim are a series of objectives, which I’ve written to reflect the structure of the overall thesis. That has resulted in a different objective for each chapter, more or less, drawing attention to the idea of a ‘systematic review’ of the literature, and a possible three tiered approach to the primary research. The systematic review would take a relatively positivistic approach to the literature, demanding that the process follows specific methods and that it is carefully documented. A three tiered approach would facilitate research into the experiences of individuals; as well as the impacts on specified festivals; ultimately then the situation across a whole festival city economy. This is about three PhD’s worth of work, so another round of focusing beckons sometime in the future!
Image: ‘Focus’ / flickr.com/photos/ihtatho/627226315/
A year ago I wrote about the trip I took to Breda in the Netherlands as part of a project to bring some of their students across to Edinburgh for a research project. Now it’s 2012 and the project has just seen its third iteration with another two groups of Breda students heading across to Scotland… some 160 people in total. Quite an astonishing effort given the difficulties I’ve had encouraging my students to spend a day in Perthshire (which I’m sure is nothing to do with my choice of destination).
From one year to the next there have been some changes in the nature of the work the Breda students do during their ten days in Edinburgh, though the biggest change from my perspective is that I’ve taken a step back throughout the project. Nevertheless Napier has been more involved than ever. Colleagues of mine have contributed lectures and workshops on our campuses, they’ve attended guest speakers that Breda have invited in and all are keen to build on this link between the two institutions.
I think this is all great, very rewarding and a creative collaborative effort. It’s also testament to what can be achieved in Higher Education that a small idea a few years ago, which I was allowed to run with so long as it didn’t get in the way of my core job, has become a sustainable annual event that reaches so many people. From this have already sprung: Erasmus exchanges for both students and staff in each direction; the sharing of ideas and contacts; research projects… and lots of good memories and friendships.
Image: ‘Orange fever’ / flickr.com/photos/veneman/4761098876/
Here are some notes on two projects I’ve recently been involved with – shame on me for not getting this onto the blog before now. On consecutive weekends I attended Culture Hack Scotland (Glasgow) and Citizen Relay training (Edinburgh).
From Culture Hack Scotland (27-28.04.2012)…
//April 27-28th//SocietyM, Glasgow//Come make stuff//#chscot
Culture Hack Scotland is a fast-paced and highly creative event that challenges designers, technologists and artists to make innovative new culture-related projects in just 24 hours.
…that about sums up the premise: get some very talented, creative folk together in an environment that breeds collaboration and experimentation, then (to some extent) let them get on with it. This is the second hack weekend in Scotland with a cultural theme, so I’d imagine the organisers were able to apply some of the lessons learned from the first running and be more ambitious. So I don’t think there was a coding workshop last time around, but charged with their inaugural success they knew they would be catering for a wider audience.
Then from Citizen Relay (06.05.2012)…
#CitizenRelay is a participatory project which relies on the involvement of people from across Scotland to effectively report on the untold local stories and creative ways that Scotland’s citizens are interacting with the Olympic Games.
…it’s another project that relies on people getting stuck in and creating work: collaboration through the kit in your pocket and the tools at your disposal. Led by staff and research students at University of the West of Scotland it taps into existing networks (through academia, etc.) in preparation for the imminent arrival of a newly applied connective tissue, soon to be sutured onto the winding roads, villages, cities and suburbs of Scotland: the Olympic torch relay is coming.
Three questions for this blog to address:
- What did I do at these events and why?
- What’s the bigger picture?
- What could be the upshot… what happens to this work?
Ivory Tower Syndrome has a tendency of catching up on me from time to time: I view in awe and wonderment the folk who get on and do stuff, rather than reading, writing and talking about it. The chance to make a small contribution to these projects was too good an opportunity to pass up therefore, drawing on both some academic knowledge and expertise, as well as my former life spent working with the Edinburgh Festival Fringe (managing box offices and so on). The nature of the Fringe cycle, as with many an annual event, is of course that you get to know a lot of people very well for a few weeks or months… and then you go your separate ways. It can be a powerful way of working and often breeds an intensity of effort and a willingness to get the job done that might look out of place in a ‘regular’ job. (One without quite so many trips to the pub perhaps.)
For me one of the biggest differences between Fringe work and entering academia has been a greater degree of autonomy, matched with more personal responsibility. Collaborative processes are not always at the heart of my job, or at least I don’t perceive them to be: if I’m not ready for a class no one is going to step in and solve that problem, but within a box office you work together to build the events on your system, refer customers to your colleagues and so on. Of course there are collaborative projects in academia, but the teams tend to be smaller and there’s less overlap of skills – each person has their own expertise, it isn’t such a ‘flat’ structure.
All of which leads back to those experiences of working together in order to keep the festival moving, day after day after day, living in each others’ back pockets. Until it ends. So the project we conceived and started building at Culture Hack Scotland sought to provide an online space to maintain those links, as well as retrospectively piecing together the communities of old. Thanks to the expert design prowess of @rufflemuffin (Sarah) we pieced together an interface that would allow users of the website to add their memories to a piece of Edinburgh festivals history – maybe a festival in a particular year, perhaps a venue within that festival, a show that was performed there… ultimately even individual performances would be ripe for photos, written memories, perhaps video clips and links to other sites and contributors. It’s a way of recreating the collections of administrators, performers and audiences that made the festivals hap
pen: last year, the year before and right back to the 1940s.
I spent over a decade of summers in one bit of the festivals or another, and loved almost every minute. Back in the olden days there was no social media to link people together once they’d drifted apart, you simply didn’t know what had happened to most folk until miraculously half of you gathered together again at the allotted time to do it all over again the following year. So there’s a community aspect to it, with its attendant social capital potential, but there’s also an archival opportunity – I have a couple of degrees in social history, so that sort of thing appeals to me. Right now where can people get their online fix of Edinburgh festival history? There’ll be a few annual reports kicking about for sure, as well as a barrel load of reviews, previews and old news from the last decade or so; but further back? Not so much. We envisaged our site being populated with some curated content: pictures, listings, perhaps some documents and the like …a unified hub for this information with the scope for constant improvement, investment and development at the hands of anyone with a connection to the festivals – ‘citizen curators’ if you will.
At which point I turn to Citizen Relay, with its growing band of citizen journalists, getting tooled up to hit the streets and cover the Olympic torch relay from the host communities’ perspectives. Until the training day I wasn’t aware that the project is part of the Cultural Olympiad, so to an extent officially sanctioned to go out and deliver some Games legacy whether Scotland wants it or not. There’s less of the historical archive at the heart of this project, at least not yet – this is about real time coverage of the biggest peace time event the world will have ever seen, yet one which risks remaining out of reach for most of the UK population apart from fleeting glimpses of a torch and the mediated spectacle of the competitive action. #citizenrelay will be despatching reporters and interns to all parts of Scotland as nation speaks unto nation through the catalyst of the torch relay – it’s a great project made possible thanks to the small pieces of technology so many folk carry with them every day in their pockets and bags.
As for the upshot of all this relay coverage, there’s a particular Scottish motivation for this work because as with everything Olympic it’s just a dress rehearsal for the 2014 Glasgow Commonwealth Games. Does that mean Glasgow and Scotland stand a better chance of delivering enduring legacies from its mega event after this learning experience? The trial run isn’t going to do it any harm that’s for sure. (Either way I’ll have had time to learn even more about what can be done with a humble smart phone.)
The Culture Hack project may well have a legacy too, beyond the bleary-eyed show and tell that ended the hack weekend. One of the contributors, Jennifer, works for Festivals Edinburgh… the perfect organisation to take this sort of idea further, give it some funding and get other partners on board. Who knows, maybe Jay (the patient programmer we worked with) will adapt it to work for mega sporting events as well as cultural celebrations.
Update: now with added logo!